CONSCIENTIOUS OBJECTORS DAY 15 MAY 2003           CLOSE WINDOW
at the CO Stone Tavistock Square, London WC1

These are 50 representative Conscientious Objectors chosen from as many countries as could be found.

Angola - Emanuel Matondo, a recent CO
Argentina – Cristian Lasalle, one of five who made a public “presentation” of conscientious objection, August 1993
Armenia – Armayak Karapetyan, imprisoned, 2002
Australia - Dennis O'Donnell, imprisoned, 1968
Austria – after annexation by Germany - Franz Jagerstatter, beheaded, Berlin, 9 August 1943
Austria – Post 1945 - Wolfgang Happenhofer, imprisoned 4 months, 1987
Belarus - Valentin Gulai, a recent CO
Belgium – Peter Claes, imprisoned 2 months, 1992
Bermuda – Juvaughan Sampson, mistreated by army before recognition as a CO, 1998
Britain – Harold Beynon, one of 73 WW1 British COs who died as result of their treatment
Bulgaria - Minko Mihov, imprisoned 6 years, beaten and electrically tortured, WW2
Chile - Michel Nash, shot by firing squad for refusing to shoot dissidents condemned by the Pinochet regime
Colombia - Luis Gabriel Caldas Leon, imprisoned 6 months, 1995
Cyprus - Greek – Antonis Spetsintis, imprisoned a third time, 1983
Cyprus - Turkish - Salih Askerogul, imprisoned 3 years, 1993
Denmark - Laurids Larsen, imprisoned, 1959
Finland – Paavo Muhonen, imprisoned 11 months, 1980
France – Jean Bernard Mireau, imprisoned, 1949
French Guiana - V E (full name unknown), imprisoned many years on Devil's Island, 1950s
Germany - August Dickman, shot by firing squad, 16 September 1939
East Germany - Jens Vachter, imprisoned, 1984
West Germany – Siegbert Kunzel Gunter, imprisoned, 1979
Greece – Georgios Lagos, imprisoned 4 years, 1975
Hungary – Karoly Kiszeli, pioneer CO, 1976
Israel – Jonathan Ben-Artzi, nephew of former Prime Minister Benyamin Netanyahu, imprisoned, 2002
Italy – Beppo Frusca, total resister, imprisoned, 1970s
Latvia - Romans Nero, a recent CO
Lithuania - Karolis Podenas, imprisoned for several long terms, from1936
Namibia (South West Africa) – Edward Ampora, 1987
Netherlands – Dirk van Donselaar, imprisoned, 1984
New Zealand – Wilfred Foote, imprisoned, 1941
Norway – Bo Nyborg Andersen, imprisoned, 1984
Paraguay – Miguel Angel Veron Gomez, one of four who made a public “presentation” of conscientious objection, September 1993
Poland – Maciej Glebicki, imprisoned 3 years, and the only political prisoner not included in an amnesty, 1984
Portugal – Fernando Ferreira da Costa, pioneer CO, 1946
Roman Empire - Maximilianus, beheaded, Thevesta, north Africa, 12 March 295
Russia – Aleksandr Chizhikov, imprisoned, 1994
Slovakia - Milan Kobolka, a recent CO
South Africa – Richard Steele, imprisoned, 1980
Spain – Jacinto Gomez Viniegra, total resister, 1995
Spain - Basque country – Patricio Aguilar, arrested, 1977
Sweden - Ulf Norenius, imprisoned, 1984
Switzerland – Erwin Akeret, imprisoned, 1979
Turkey – Mehmet Bal, imprisoned after claiming conscientious objection during military service, 2002
Turkmenistan – Nikolai Shelekov, imprisoned, 2002
USA – Corbett Bishop, who fasted in prison in solidarity with Gandhi, 1942
USSR - Kirgistan - Andrei Bill, imprisoned, 1984
USSR – Lithuania – Erkki Luik, sentenced to forced labour outside prison, 1989
USSR – Ukraine - Filipp Pavlovich Akhtyorov, imprisoned, 1984
Yugoslavia – Samo Acko, imprisoned, 1988


Sources: AI, EBCO, PPU, WRI

Peace Pledge Union 1 Peace Passage London N7 0BT
www.ppu.org.uk